In addition to the prepared text, to provide clarification and comments on border maps between the kingdom of Cambodia and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Samdech Techo Hun Sen made extempore comments as followed:
… Dear Compatriots, I would need to clarify for you about consequences that could arise from forgery of the 1979 Treaty to have said: “Cambodia … decided to abolish its national border with Vietnam? I have calculated that if we were to take no urgent actions and leave the matter undiscovered, sowing of such dangerous tricks would cause our people’s patriotism to rise up. We could say that it would bring to war on both inside and at the border. Take the case in point, in 2008, in the Kingdom of Thailand, there was a group of extremism – politicians and their supporters – had taken the issue of Preah Vihear as hostage. It was no different from what politicians in Cambodia have been doing using the issue of the Cambodian-Vietnamese border as political hostage to weaken the ruling party.
As a result, up to the present, division in Thailand has not come to the end yet. National rift in Thailand between the red shirt and yellow shirt people and the mixed colored ones until the military coup took over has not yet resolved. The border war (that Thai had) with Cambodia in 2008 through to 2011 had ended only after there was a decision of the International Court in The Hague in 2013. Those were results of extremism. No matter where, when there is such situation, similar issue will happen.
I wish to share with all of our compatriots and Buddhist monks that either a sovereign country or tribal ones that are under colonies also have to have demarcation and delimitation of their boundaries. We are a sovereign state with the delimitation left from the time we won independence, which Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Preah Borom Ratanak Kaod made great efforts concerning border issues. Even before gaining independence, under the French colony, there was a clear demarcation and delimitation of state border between Cambodia and Thailand, Laos and with Cochinchina and a major part of administrative border with Vietnam.
… Why those politicians in the opposition daringly posted forged documents to say that Cambodia and Vietnam had agreed to dismantle the state border? It is extremely dangerous should the Royal Government take no urgent actions. An internal war could be a reality as there would be explosion of patriotism of the Cambodian people, who, I also included, would go against the would-be act of demolishing of a state border. However, it was not true. It is already in the later part of the 20th century, would such thing happen. We have taken certain measures urgently. We are searching for those who posted forgery documents/fabrications on Facebook in relation to the above matter. I also appeal to those who fled to Bangkok to return to Phnom Penh to report to the authority their involvements in posting of forgery documents with the said Senator.
Transposing from Bonne 1/100,000 to UTM 1/50,000
… With regard to the need (to transpose the boundary line from the Bonne 1:100,000 to UTM 1:50,000 scale maps) I wish to clarify, not a response to the opposition but, to our compatriots who really love the country for no political gains. Why do we need to use the UTM 1:50,000 together with the Bonne 1:100,000 maps? The Bonne 1:100,000 scale maps are ones that present difficulties in finding referral point for border posting. The two sides have agreed to transpose boundary line on the Bonne 1:100,000 scale maps to those of UTM 1:50,000 scale maps. In the coming time, when we hire a Danish company (as is agreed by the two sides), we will proceed to transpose boundary line further to 1/25,000 scale maps and, for certain sectors, we may have to bring it up to 1:10,000 scale maps.
Let me read you the Article 3 of the 2005 Supplemental Border Treaty to clarify this issue for our compatriots about the fact that whether there were any alterations between the UTM and Bonne maps. “… To facilitate technical work in the delimitation and demarcation of land boundary, the two sides agreed that respective technical party will audit unilaterally copy of borderline from the Bonne 1:100,000 scale maps of the Services Geographique de l’Indochine annexed to the 1985 Treaty on the Delimitation (of the State Border) to the UTM 1:50,000 scale maps …”. In its last paragraph, the two sides stated that for areas where agreement will not reach as result of comparison or technical solution of the borderline there would be no alterations as defined by the Bonne 1:100,000 scale maps.
I may stress here that sectors where issues have not resolved is because we have not yet transpose boundary line from Bonne to UTM scale maps. In the coming time, I will speak further. The other day, meeting with the Vietnamese envoy, I raised a point that should both sides disagree on transposing boundary line from Bonne to UTM, we would ask for foreign technicians or hire them to do the job to ensure accuracy and clarity on issues relating to transpose from Bonne to UTM scale maps. This should also ensure exactness of demarcation along the borderline. Talking about this I would also affirm that in the last point of the Supplemental Treaty there is a stipulation that as long as work of demarcation has not completed, management of borderline will continue according to the communiqué dated 17 January 1995 by Prime Ministers of the two countries.
In the communiqué of the two Prime Ministers stated clearly that: “both sides reaffirm wills to build a border of peace, friendship and stability, contributing to development, cooperation and good neighborliness between the two countries.” While waiting for solution on this very important border issue, both sides agree to maintain status quo without changing or moving border posts while educating and prohibiting people from working the land or setting up settlements across border as well as cooperating to maintain a border of peace and orderliness. This point is very important for resolving border problem between Cambodia and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. We use same formula of maintaining status quo to resolve border issues with Thailand and with Laos in sectors where there are yet solutions.
In this regard, as I am going to talk about Dar-Hoyt, I need to say that the 2005 Supplemental Treaty stipulated issues relating to the last point on delimitation of border sector adjacent to Dak Dang commune, O Rang district, Mondulkiri province on the Cambodian side and Quang Tri commune, Dak R’Lap district, Dak Nong province on the Vietnamese side. The two sides have agreed to continue discussing it. I will bring it up again later to clarify the issue for our Buddhist monks and people to understand why I have had to put up a fight on it when the governments of former generations since 1964 already abandoned it proven by maps they sent to the United Nations.
Authenticity of Maps
… I really want us to achieve what is the national interest and exactness (of borderline) left by history. However, the opposition and ill-will circle give me no understanding but stepping on me to drown. I wish to affirm that the maps claimed to have discovered in the US carry signature of no one. I have here four pieces of maps – one that is an annex to the Treaty, one from the CNRP, one provided by France and one from the United Nations – to make the case. Even though there were claims days ago to have discovered maps in the US, I must affirm that the Royal Government has those maps since ten years ago. Why must there be signatures by four people on maps? I wish to emphasize that the maps as annexes to the Treaty carry signatures of four people. One by head of cartographers of Cambodia Mr. Kheang Yoeurn, one by head of cartographers of Vietnam Mr. Vu Ngiem, one by head of delegation of the Cambodian government to the Joint Commission HE Dit Munti, presently President of the Supreme Court, and one by head of the delegation of the government of Vietnam …
One party leader said that maps could be bought from markets or bookshops. Since they were that easy (to obtain) they would be even easier to falsify. To prevent falsification, contracts or decrees and sub-decrees always have stamps on every page. As for the 26 pieces of maps, if they were to have no signatures on them, it would be easier for just anyone – Cambodia or Vietnam – to replace them. It is a huge misconception (for making such statement). It is certain that for state border maps there must be signatures from leaders of the Royal Government and government. The annexed maps must bear signatures of head of cartographers and seek ratification from the legislative bodies, the National Assembly and the Senate, with signature of approval given by HM the King …
The point we make here is that we must understand it is with signatures on these maps that there would be no other falsified maps in time of either war or any other turmoil … That is why I have the need to explain why there must have signatures. Would signatures lead to (Cambodia being) colonized by or equal right and status with Vietnam in that stage? If the maps carry signature of Vietnam alone, Cambodia would not have accepted it. If Cambodia signs them alone, Vietnam would also not accept. I also have your attention that along with broadcast on TV, there will also be materials in print that people can find them in libraries. Should there will be a need, we will also continue to broadcast from TV and Radio stations to widen understanding. However, no one could be blinder than men with good sight to pretend as blind or deafer than those with good hearing but do not listen …
Whether All Four Are Thieves?
Let me clarify further legal aspect of the agreement relating to these maps. This is the decree that proclaimed use of laws that are relating to the Supplemental Treaty, to which legal maps annexed. HM the King approved by signature on 30 November 2005, and there are four signatures of four people – the President of the Senate, the President of the National Assembly, Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Council of Ministers. No one shall infringe upon the legal aspect. Since there has such a strong legal aspect, why else there was a need for verifications of maps? Why not go ahead and arrest those who act in illegal way? The Royal Government wishes to be flexible and show everyone how it cares for the national interest. That is what the Royal Government wants on issues concerning national unity, which should begin firstly from use of these maps.
We have not used maps that are unilateral and required the other side to accept them. We also cannot accept maps from other countries that requires upon us. That is why with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam we must have agreement on maps to use. The maps we are using are legal as required by legal aspect internally and international law. In addition to arguments given by the Royal Government, the National Assembly and the Senate, HM the King also consulted royal families. Samdech Sisovath Chivorn Monirak, then first Vice President of the Senate, Samdech Norodom Sereyvuth, then deputy Prime Minister and co-ministers of Interiors, and Samdech Preah Mahisara Chakrapong, then advisor to the Royal Government, who gave opinions that it was responsibility of the executive and legislative powers.
At the time of approval and signing of the decree into force, HM the King also issued a royal message to Buddhist monks and people via radio and TVs. I hope the radio/TV stations continue to broadcast the message of HM the King, and the letter of former King Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Preah Borom Ratanak Kaod to (the late) HE Pham Van Dong in 1999 on issue of maritime delimitation, requesting for recognition of the Brevié line … to avoid irresponsible people’s comments and instigations from causing trouble …
… At this point, is it that all four persons (who signed in approval of the maps) HM the King, then President of the Senate, though he already passed away, Samdech Chea Sim, then President of the National Assembly, Samdech Krom Preah Norodom Ranaridh, Prime Minister, myself Hun Sen, are thieves? It is an unforgivable insult. Have those who insult the maps as ones of theft, falsification, in-authenticity thought about (damages they caused to) national supreme institutions? What sort of punishment should they receive for (carrying out) such (act of) violation? I suggest lawyers and court power to study clearly and take measures on those who insult the official maps that we are using.
What the Royal Government wants is transparency for the Cambodian nation. I also want the venomous creatures to show themselves. They have been more than venomous as they instigate and deceive our people. What sort of responsibility should they be held accountable before law, should bad situation happen? Things like internal killing and/or clashes along the border because of instigation by (opposition) leaders, at least they should be held accountable in moral term for such act of instigation and national division …
Deposited Maps at the UN Are Not Found, Dak Dang (Dak Dam) and Dar-Hoyt
I would clarify this point a bit. Through letter of the Secretary General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon to me, they have not found those maps. It does not tell us whether there were such maps deposited (at the United Nations) or not? Belonged to the younger generation, I also have no way to prove whether there were or were not those maps said to have deposited at the United Nations. In this case, search for them must continue. However, they have found maps that Cambodia used in its protest to the United Nations on invasions of the US and South Vietnam at the time. We can consider those maps as parts of (issues relating to) the Cambodian border too because they have disclosed locations where there were bombardments on our territory. Though they are not the ones that are said to have deposited (by former governments), they also tell us which parts belong to Cambodia or Vietnam. The 18 pieces of maps could be sufficient guiding is where the borderline is. I thank the Secretary General of the United Nations for his understanding and allowing us to borrow those maps …
Let me reveal this story. The Dak Dang and Dar-Hoyt location is relating to the continued negotiation between Cambodia and Vietnam according to the Supplemental Treaty of 2005. In 1914, the French Governor-General’s decision was that “the boundary in this area follows the Dar-Hoyt creek …” However, the French drew maps following the Dak Dang creek. That has created a piece of land of about 50 square kilometers that is not corresponding to the decision. I have tried the best I could to resolve this matter and demanded that Vietnam accept proper drawing of borderline as decided by the French Governor-General in 1914. The blue line here is what I drew to explain to you. As for the maps that we sent to the United Nations, the borderline runs through the Dak Dang creek. Since the time when it was drawn until the present, we have not yet found any document that proves that Cambodia demand or protest to France to redraw it. The French (cartographer) did not follow the decision of the French Governor-General to draw the borderline. Cambodia never protests and further more use the (wrongly drawn borderline maps) for protest (against encroachment) to the United Nations. The circle here (on the map) is the area where we are demanding Vietnam to accept the decision of the French Governor-General.
I do not know if our people should vote for political leaders who could not distinguish between decision and actual maps to lead Cambodia. He said weeks ago to demand to use maps of 1914. Let me clarify for our compatriots as well as to members of the opposition party that the (French Governor-General’s) decision guided the boundary in this area follows the Dar-Hoyt creek until reaching its source … However, the actual map was drawn along the Dak Dang creek. This clearly means that there were no such maps that the borderline runs along the Dar-Hoyt creek at all. There was only (the French Governor-General’s) decision. I can clarify further for our compatriots that was (Cambodia’s) sacrifice since 1964, when General Keo Phat used the map to protest (the US and South Vietnamese encroachment) on 25 June 1964. (Cambodia then) did not ask the French to correct the borderline as decided by the French Governor-General. They used (the wrongly drawn borderline) map for protest.
I have held this suffering since before 2005 … When I have the obligation to defend our territory, have anyone offered me protection. They only attack and try to sink me down so that they could gain votes. What wrong did I do when I just fight for the sake of national interest to negotiate with Vietnam to move the borderline along the Dak Dang creek to the Dar-Hoyt creek in accordance with the decision made by the French Governor-General’s decision. What did I do wrong? Is it treason or patriotism? The CNRP has had to offer two more pieces of maps. One of the two that they failed to offer but posted is the maps of the whole Indochina (Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos). The other one was the map of Ban Me Thuot in Vietnam’s Dak Lak province. They still owe two pieces.
I have thought of looking for more points in maps provided by CNRP to strengthen arguments of the Royal Government in the negotiation with Vietnam. Now we have same problem on Dak Dang and Dar-Hoyt issue. So, maps provided by CNRP have not got anything better than those of the Royal Government. Who is patriotic and who are not here? We do not want to use this term “treason” but they have used very harsh and venomous language on us. Now the Dak Dang and Dar-Hoyt issue appears that they have nothing to prove different to those maps sent to the UN for protest. The French also sent us the same maps. Or was it because I do not drop off my effort for the Dak Dang and Dar-Hoyt area that CNRP accused me of using falsified maps?
When I write letter to (request for maps from) the French President, they posted a map they claimed purchasing at 168 USD. I think people and concerned persons already saved that. After posting (the 168 USD map) HE Sam Rainsy sent me an SMS suggesting an amendment of the article 2 of the Constitution. Here is the SMS that HE Sam Rainsy sent to me and I will read for you to avoid this issue played like game by members and leaders of the opposition party. (Samdech Techo retrieved the SMS on 17 July at 7:45 am and reads) … I also sent an SMS as a reply that there is no need to do so at this time. He suggested us to amend the Constitution to use the 1914 map. There was no such map from 1914, let me tell you.
We will continue to conduct negotiation with Vietnam. We will not abandon it. In addition to this, along the Dar-Hoyt creek, there are some border posts. Though the borderline was drawn along the Dak Dang creek, there are no border posts there. These are the points that Cambodia will continue to discuss with Vietnam. Let me reaffirm that this is not the era that one country uses military force to take land. We cannot apply the (former Thai Prime Minister) Abhisit Vejjajiva’s method.
I wish to reaffirm also as far as maps in the US are concerned, HE Var Kim Hong already copied from more than ten years ago. I have so many maps in my house – from France, CNRP, the US and UN. Maps provided by people who claimed the Royal Government did not find prove no dissimilarity after verification. Now, whether the US will provide us the maps or not, is not necessary anymore. There will not be any discrepancies. The maps obtained from the library in the US with their stamps are already official. However, we wanted them to be provided by the government to the government.
Should the Maps Be In-authentic, I Would Step Down
I have the need to make a point here. Between the 18 pieces of maps obtained from the UN, though they are not the ones that was said to have deposited in the UN and the Bonne 1/100,000 scale maps, but the UTM 1/100,000 scale maps, I wish to clarify that France produced the maps in two types of scale – Bonne and UTM. The UTM maps we obtained from the UN prove no discrepancies when we compared them with the original Bonne 1/100,000 scale maps that Cambodia and Vietnam signed. They all are ones. When we conducted the verification, maps provided by France are important because they were the ones that determined our borderlines with Siam, now Thailand, with Cochinchina, now Vietnam, with Laos, and left administrative border for Cambodia and Vietnam. Now Cochinchina and Vietnam have become one. Then maps from France are the most important.
I need to share with our Buddhist monks and compatriots that I have made a clear determination that should the maps from France were any different from those signed with Vietnam, I would declare stepping down immediately. I will not stay as Prime Minister and voluntarily go into detention waiting for court’s trial. It is a tremendous responsibility. While I was on mission abroad, I gave order to Phnom Penh on 6th – Foreign Minister HE Hor Namhong and Supreme National Economic Council President Aun Porn Moniroth – to send me their documents. I signed it on the 6th. I took a dangerous risk. The Cambodian People’s Party would have to elect a new leader. It was my own determination without knowledge of my wife or children and members of the Party even.
It was in this responsibility that I did not assign myself for any schedules but wait and see how the verification went. Should the verification session, which was live on all TV stations, discover any discrepancies of the maps, there would be a live coverage also of resignation of Prime Minister Hun Sen, putting an end to holding of power over more than three decades. However, deity has eyes that they do not punish people who committed good deeds but curse those who committed bad actions and fled the country or detained. It was a get-all or nothing decision. Either I continue to be in power with trust and confidence of the people or resign. As for the ones who accused other of using falsified maps, would he dare to resign? It is a reciprocal responsibility. Deception that leads to danger for the nation is a serious crime …
No More Maps of Falsification, In-Authenticity and Theft
From now on, whoever dare say about maps of falsification, in-authenticity and theft will face immediate arrest. It is an absolute order to carry out. It is danger to the nation. It could flare up our people patriotism who love our land, while (they misunderstood that) the Royal Government gave out land to foreign country because of incorrect maps. Should we leave the issue to go on, war could arise. I must also stress that if it were not the Cambodian People’s Party in power, the other party in power would have flared the war absolutely because of the language they use even now. There was a posting on Facebook last Cabinet’s meeting by someone to say that let us not reprimand each other, the Khmer land lost from 400 years ago since the time when Cambodian People’s Party and CNRP were not there. If you (the person) know that, why did you chide me for years? If he already confessed that, he should dare to take the responsibility. He should apologize.
To the very least, he should take moral responsibility for scolding others for selling land or losing tens of thousands of square Kilometers. As a real man, as I said from my part about resigning, would he dare to do so? I will not forgive anyone who continues to use the words in-authentic, falsified maps and maps of thieves. If they give us no peace, I would not have to reserve it for them. I am in power and I do nothing wrong. You forged document and accused others of forging, you have to be held responsible before the law. Law implementers and enforcers must arrest on the spot whoever uses this language. It is a real violation of law. As Prime Minister, if I do not issue this order, who else would do it. Offense in flagrante delicto must face arrest. It is not a threat. Everyone has political rights but s/he should not just go around accusing everyone.
As Head of the Royal Government, I respect completely rights and freedom of expression and legal political activities. I would not, however, forgive or exonerate anyone who continues to breach in the case of maps and border issue. There has a saying that goes “having understanding for enemy is savage for oneself.” I have noted that every time I offer understanding, I happened to hurt myself. However, I accept voluntarily to forgive. As of now, I will not offer sympathy to repetitive disease or person who committed such mistakes. I warn you it is not a threat. However, democracy must check with and not violate rule of law. I will implement the law on everyone without exception, no matter who the person may be …
Elements of Paris Peace Agreement Are in Constitution
I would like to take this opportune moment to say a few things about issues relating to the Paris Peace Agreement, which I myself was one of the negotiators from the beginning until the agreement came to being. I may have your attention on D point relating to the termination of treaty. It has stipulated clause on “terminating treaties and agreements that are not in line with sovereignty, independence, integrity and inviolability of neutrality and national unity.” I wish to affirm on this point. If the Cambodian Constitution stipulates that Cambodia’s sovereignty is determined by the 1/50,000 scale maps, then the agreement will terminate automatically. Why this agreement continues to be valid? It is because the Cambodian Constitution states that the Cambodian sovereignty is determined by the 1/100,000 scale maps, printed between 1933 and 1953 and was recognized internationally between 1963 and 1969. The agreement is then constitutional.
Coming along the second Kingdom of Cambodia, this document no longer belongs to the People’s Republic of Kampuchea. It is no longer document of the State of Cambodia. It has become the official document of the second Kingdom of Cambodia. I propose to lawyers as well as scholars to read the first part about transitional period and Article I of the Paris Peace Agreement. Some did not know a thing about the Paris Peace Agreement and made a strong claim on it. I read this point (Samdech Techo Hun Sen read Article I of the Paris Peace Agreement) … transitional period commences at the time when the agreement goes into forces and terminates when the National Assembly, freely and fairly elected by the elections organized and approved by the United Nations, adopted Constitution and becomes the legislative National Assembly, that establishes a new government. It is now the fifth term National Assembly already.
Samdech Krom Preah went to Vietnam and signed the documents that we use currently. The documents are no longer those of the State of Cambodia. They belong to the Constitutional Kingdom of Cambodia. Let us not confuse anymore about the validity of the Paris Peace Agreement. Elements of the Paris Peace Agreement have become those of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia.
I wanted to ask people living along the border. Would they like more war? I am sure if war breaks out, no matter at the eastern or western border, or in the country, or even in one location, it would not be any good for our nation. To have developed the country to this level, it was because we have had favorable conditions from both internal and external factors. Last year, border trade between Cambodia and Thailand reached some 5,400 million USD. Border trade between Cambodia and Vietnam reached nearly 4,000 million USD last year. If the two countries go into conflict, would people along the border continue to live peacefully? There would be displacement, Look what happened in Preah Vihear and Uddar Meanjei provinces. That was result of war.
This will be the result when the opposition party comes to power. I am quite sure it will. I speak fully from my mouth that only the Cambodian People’s Party will guarantee there will be no conflict with neighboring countries, except on the condition that neighboring countries send in their troops to Cambodia. Once a while, like the case of Keo Sekhakirisvarak Buddhist temple at Preah Vihear, we have to hold up arms … I am sure not only people living along the border but throughout the country bear impacts from border situation. The opposition party has a serious illness of racism …
The 2011 Memorandum of Understanding
I raised this issue with the Vietnamese envoy and in the Cabinet meeting last week I also instructed Senior Minister Var Kimhong, Joint Border Committee Chairman, to negotiate with Vietnam. Any locations that there are technical disagreements in transposing from Bonne maps to UTM maps, we shall hire or request for assistance from other countries. It will be excellent if we can ask help from France. Cambodia and Vietnam should jointly request cartographers to inspect the maps transposition. Some countries may provide technicians free but some may require us to cover all expenses. Cambodia and Vietnam will have to share the cost in half.
The border post 314 that we last planted. The French did not plant the border post right on spot on map. There was a distance between new and old border posts. In that case, Vietnam does not lose and Cambodia does not gain any. We already audited it. The place where we planted in 2012, we had to refill the land. The French did not refill land then and chose to plant the post in a different place, leading to borderline stretching into our land. We just moved the post to where it should be. Vietnam does not lose any land. Though it would be tiresome, we must work together to move it to where it belongs. Some border posts have been there since the year 1800s. They are old. To plant new ones we must do it with correct and transparent procedure …
The 2011 Memorandum of Understanding allows us to exchange one on one. In some sectors, the French drew borderline putting some Khmer villages in the Vietnamese side. In some sectors, France drew a map putting Vietnamese land inside Cambodia. It would not be applicable to move Cambodian villages back to Cambodia and move Vietnamese to the Cambodia side. Take for instance the village of Thlok Trach of Samdech Heng Samrin, we have to find a solution to exchange land from somewhere in order to keep his village. We have agreed with Vietnam that exchange of locations will first conduct at the provincial level. Should they could not find land size to exchange, we must try to find in a different place but similar size.
In another instance, the seven points remained and mentioned in my letter to the Prime Minister of Vietnam shall continue to be subjects for discussion of the Joint Border Committee Cambodia-Vietnam, where Dak Dang and Dar-Hoyt is also included. As we have not finished delimitation and demarcation of our borderline, please cooperate with Vietnam at national and sub-national level to maintain status quo along the border. We must carry this task through good cooperation, not only with Vietnam but also with Thailand and Laos …/.